Extraction of Sensory part of Ulnar Nerve Signal Using Blind Source Separation Method

Authors

1 Assistant Professor in Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Advanced Bionic Systems (ABS) lab, Tehran, Iran.

2 M. Sc Degree in Electrical Engineering, Department of electrical engineering, Islamic Azad University, Langaroud branch, Guilan, Iran

Abstract

A recorded nerve signal via an electrode is composed of many evokes or action potentials, (originated from individual axons)
which may be considered as different initial sources. Recovering these primitive sources in its turn may lead us to the anatomic
originations of a nerve signal which will give us outstanding foresights in neural rehabilitations. Accordingly, clinical interests
may be raised on extraction of sensory and motor components of the nerve signals in neural injuries. One example is to extract
sensory fraction in sacral nerve to sense the bladder filling up in paraplegic or quadriplegic people [3]. Blind Source Separation
(BSS) methods seem good solutions for extraction of the initial sources which are contributing in recorded mixed sources.
Considering the nerve signal as a superposition of many axonal or fascicular signals, we have encouraged to try BSS methods to
see whether it can recover the sensory and motor sources of a recorded nerve signal. Accordingly, both PCA and ICA techniques
were examined in a case study (human left arm), in which the response of the ADM muscle to the Ulnar nerve stimulation were
recorded in two points. The corresponded sensory signal was recorded on the pinkie at the same time (all recordings were done
via surface electrodes). It was shown that ICA (supremely better than PCA) was able to separate initial sources (ADM recorded
signals) into two signals so that one of them was most similar to the sensory (Pinkie) signal. The level of similarity was quantified
via correlation analysis. As the result, it is concluded that ICA is capable of extracting Sensory and Motor signals in PNS.

Keywords


[1] Z. Navarro et al, "A critical review of interfaces with the
peripheral nervous system for the control of neuroprostheses
and hybrid bionic systems", Journal of the Peripheral Nervous
System, Vol.10, pp.229–258, 2005.
[2] Ming-Shaung Ju, Hsin-Chun Chien, Gin-Shin Chen, Chou-
Ching K. Lin1, Cheng-Hung Chang, Chi-Wen Chang, "Design
and Fabrication of Multi-microelectrode Array for Neural
Prosthesis", Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering,
Vol.22, No.1, pp.33-40, Accepted 8 April 2002.
[3] A. Harb, Y. HU, M. Sawan, A. Abdelkerim, M.M. elhilali",
Low-Power CMOS Interface for Recording and Processing
Very Low Amplitude Signals", Analog Integrated Circuits and
Signal Processing, Vol.39, pp.39–54, 2004.
[4] Tessler, A., “Intraspinal transplants”, Ann. Neurol., Vol.29,
pp.115-123, 1991.
[5] Schnell, L., Schwab, M.E., “Sprouting and regeneration of
lesioned corticospinal tract fibres in the adult rat spinal cord”,
Eur. J. Neurosci., Vol.5, pp.1156-1171, 1993.
[6] Schwab, M.E., Kapfhammer, J.P., Bandtlow, C.E., “Inhibitors
of neurite growth.”, Ann. Rev. Neurosci., Vol.16, pp.565-595,
1993.
[7] Faden, A.I., Salzman, S.K., “The Neurobiology of Central
Nervous System Trauma.”, Experimental pharmacology. In:
Salzman, S.K., Faden, A.I. (Eds.), Oxford University Press,
Oxford, pp.227-244, 1994.
[8] Reier, P.J., Anderson, D.K., Schrimsher, G.W., Bao, J.,
Friedman, R.M., Ritz, L.A., Stokes, B.T., “Neural cell grafting:
anatomical and functional repair of the spinal cord”, In:
Salzman, S.K., Faden, A.L. (Eds.), “The Neurobiology of
Central Nervous System Trauma”, Oxford University Press,
Oxford, pp.288-311, 1994.
[9] Li, Y., Field, P.M., Raisman, G, “Repair of adult rat
corticospinal tract by transplants of olfactory ensheathing
cells”, Science 277, pp.2000-2002, 1997.
[10] P. Decherchia,_P. Gauthierb, “Regeneration of Acutely and
Chronically Injured Descending Respiratory Pathways Within
Post-Traumatic Nerve Grafts”, Neuroscience Vol.112, No.1,
pp.141-152, 2002.
[11] M. Firuzi, P. Moshayedi, H. Saberi, H. Mobasheri, F.
Abolhassani, MA. Oghabian, “Effects of schwan cell
transplantation on recovery of spinal cord injury of rat: A
remedy for spinal cord injuries FENS”, Federation of European
Neurosciences, 4th Forum of European Nerosciences,Hosted
by Federation of European Neurosciences Societies (FENS),
Lisbon, Portugal, July 10-14, 2004.
[12] Akin T, Najafi K, Smoke RH, Bradley RM, “A micromachined
silicon sieve electrode for nerve regeneration applications”,
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, Vol.41, pp.305–313, 1994.
[13] Wallman L, Zhang Y, Laurell T, Danielsen N., “The geometric
design of micromachined silicon sieve electrodes influences
functional nerve regeneration.”, Biomaterials, Vol.22,
pp.1187–1193, 2001.
[14] Najafi K, Wise KD., “An implantable multielectrode array with
on-chip signal processing”, IEEE J Solid State Circuits Vol.21,
pp.1035–1044, 1986.
[15] Najafi K, Wise KD, Mochizuki T., “A high-yield ICcompatible
multichannel recording array”, IEEE Trans Electron
Devices, Vol.32, pp.1206–1211, 1985.
[16] John W. Clark, Jr., “Medical Instrumentation, Application and
Design, chapter 4: The Origin of Biopotentials”, Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1992.
[17] A.V. Holden, “Lecture notes in biomathematics models of
stochastic activity of neurons”, Vol. 12, Springer Verlag, 1976.
[18] A. Pappolis, “Probability and stochastic process”, Prentice
Hall, 1991.
[19] W. Tesfayesus', P. Yoo, D. M. Durand, "Blind Source
Separation of Nerve Cuff Recordings" Proceedings of the 25*
Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, Cancun,
Mexico - September 17-21, 2003.
[20] WTesfayesus and D M Durand, "Blind source separation of
peripheral nerve recordings", J. Neural Eng., Vol.4, pp. S157–
S167, 2007.
[21] W. Tesfayesus, P. Yoo, M. Moffitt, and D. M. Durand, "Blind
Source Separation of Nerve Cuff Recordings", Proceedings of
the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS,
San Francisco CA, September 1-5, 2004.
[22] Jolliffe IT. “Principal Component Analysis”. New York:
Springer-Verlag, 1988.
[23] Jezernik S, Grill WM, Sinkjaer T., "Detection and inhibition of
hyperreflexia-like bladder contractions in the cat by sacral
nerve root recording and electrical stimulation", Neurourol
Urodyn., Vol.20, No.2, pp.215-30, 2001